These methods are considered the new modern techniques for extraction, being more sustainable and green extraction process. These methods are considered safer, and eco-friendly (with high energy and time efficiency). Generally, they have higher extraction yields, since the application of waves, temperature, electric-field or pressure, favors the interaction of analytes with solvent.
PEF extraction is based on the application, for a short time, of an external strong electrical field to the matrix placed between two electrodes, inducing the formation of pores on the cell wall and increasing their permeability for the solvent.
HHP is based on the application of high pressure (100–800 MPa) to matrix in a water phase damage cellular structure, improving the solvent permeability and the diffusion of secondary metabolites, with no use of high temperatures.
SFE is based on the use of supercritical fluid originates from a fluid being forced to pressure and temperature that is above its critical point causing the liquid and gas phases to become indistinguishable from each other. The supercritical fluid has high diffusivity and low density and viscosity, which can enter more effectively in solid materials.